There are simply thousands of wonderful herbs growing all round the world that can help all of us enjoy amazing tastes, safe cosmetic preparations and the most natural medicines we could possibly wish for. The Magic of Herbs.
All Herbs & Ingredients
Learn how to grow herbs indoors or in the garden, in pots and containers, from seed and other propagating methods! Learn about growing herbs in pots and containers, and ideas on herbal displays, different propagating methods, and pests and diseases to watch out for. A potted history of twenty everyday herbs, step by step growing instructions, storing ideas and even medicinal uses. A quick history of twenty occasional herbs, step by step growing instructions, storing ideas and even medicinal uses.
The pharmacological treatment of disease began long ago with the use of herbs Schulz et al. Methods of folk healing throughout the world commonly used herbs as part of their tradition. Some of these traditions are briefly described below, providing some examples of the array of important healing practices around the world that used herbs for this purpose.
Traditional Chinese medicine has been used by Chinese people from ancient times. Although animal and mineral materials have been used, the primary source of remedies is botanical. Of the more than 12 items used by traditional healers, about are in common use Li, Botanical products are used only after some kind of processing, which may include, for example, stir-frying or soaking in vinegar or wine.
In clinical practice, traditional diagnosis may be followed by the prescription of a complex and often individualized remedy. Traditional Chinese medicine is still in common use in China. More than half the population regularly uses traditional remedies, with the highest prevalence of use in rural areas. About traditional remedies are available in China; they account for approximately one fifth of the entire Chinese pharmaceutical market Li, Many herbal remedies found their way from China into the Japanese systems of traditional healing.
Herbs native to Japan were classified in the first pharmacopoeia of Japanese traditional medicine in the ninth century Saito, Ayurveda is a medical system primarily practised in India that has been known for nearly years. It includes diet and herbal remedies, while emphasizing the body, mind and spirit in disease prevention and treatment Morgan, During the latter part of the twentieth century, increasing interest in self-care resulted in an enormous growth in popularity of traditional healing modalities, including the use of herbal remedies; this has been particularly true in the USA.
While centuries of use in traditional settings can be used as testimony that a particular herbal ingredient is effective or safe, several problems must be addressed as these ingredients are incorporated into modern practice. One problem is that ingredients once used for symptomatic management in traditional healing are now used in developed countries as part of health promotion or disease prevention strategies; thus, acute treatment has been replaced by chronic exposure e.
This does not expressly mean that an ingredient is unsafe; it does mean that safety in the modern context cannot be assumed. A second problem is that efficacy and effectiveness have rarely been demonstrated using modern scientific investigations. An evidence-based approach to this issue has only recently been implemented, and the results reveal that for most herbal products, considerable gaps in knowledge need to be remedied before one can be convinced about their efficacy.
There is little incentive for standardization of products for a mass market, when the intention has been to provide an individual prescription. To the small grower or the traditionally trained herbalist, standardization means understanding the growth conditions, the time of harvesting, the manner of extraction or other preparation of material so that a reliable albeit small amount of active ingredient can be offered to people. In the USA, there is both small-scale and large-scale production of herbal products and there can be wide variation in their content and quality in the marketplace.
Regulations in the USA do not yet require that dietary supplement manufacturers adhere to standard manufacturing practices, and so quality is not guaranteed see Section 3.
The public becomes discouraged by reports that products taken from store shelves do not consistently contain the ingredients — or in the amounts — that are claimed on the label. For herbal products in common use, evidence of efficacy may be based upon traditional use, testimonials, clinical studies, both controlled and uncontrolled, and randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials. For the most part, however, there is a lack of systematic clinical studies to support claims. Safety of some herbal ingredients has been recently called into question, in part because of the identification of adverse events associated with their use and, increasingly, because of the demonstration of clinically relevant interactions between herbs and prescription drugs.
Adverse events stroke, heart attacks, heart-rate irregularities, liver toxicity, seizures, psychoses and death associated with use of ephedra for weight loss, body-building effects and increased energy or kava-kava also known as kawa , widely used in Europe and increasingly in Canada to treat anxiety, nervousness, insomnia, pain and muscle tension, for example, have caused some countries to issue regulations restricting or banning these products e.
Health Canada, a , b. Only a few herbs in common use have been suspected of causing cancer. These include Aristolochia, Rubia tinctorum, Morinda officinalis and Senecio riddellii , as discussed in detail below. Use of herbal medicines in developed countries has expanded sharply in the latter half of the twentieth century. The WHO monographs, for example, describe the herb itself by a number of criteria including synonyms and vernacular names and the herb part commonly used, its geographical distribution, tests used to identify and characterize the herb including macroscopic and microscopic examination and purity testing , the active principles when known , dosage forms and dosing, medicinal uses, pharmacology, contra-indications and adverse reactions.
Information about other available databases has been published by Bhat In some cases, the active principles of plant-derived products have been isolated and characterized, and their mechanisms of action are understood e. For many, however, including virtually all of the most common products in the marketplace, such information is incomplete or unavailable.
This is in large part due to the complexity of herbal and botanical preparations; they are not pure compounds. It is also a function of the traditionally-held belief that the synergistic combination of several active principles in some herbal preparations is responsible for their beneficial effects. Data on the global nutrition products industry, in which herbal and botanical products are often included, are given in Table 1.
Sales of dietary supplement products, including herbal and botanical supplements, in the USA increased dramatically during the s, stimulated in the latter part of the decade by the Dietary Supplements Health and Education Act of DSHEA Tyler, This pattern of growth has been replicated elsewhere in the world Table 2 , although more recently, sales of herbal products have apparently experienced a decline.
In the European Union EU , in general, herbal products for which therapeutic claims are made must be marketed and regulated as drugs, while those that do not make such claims may be found in the food or cosmetic categories. Attempts are at present being made to harmonize the scientific and regulatory criteria that govern the marketing of herbal products AESGP, This category of products includes vitamins, minerals and a variety of other ingredients; herbal products accounted for about one quarter of those sales.
Table 3 identifies some trends in herbal supplement use in the USA from to In Canada, herbal use has also increased. A survey in of the most popular remedies reported in Canada is given in Table 4. In , the WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific invited a group of experts to develop criteria and general principles to guide research work on evaluating herbal medicines WHO, Most herbal medicines still need to be studied scientifically, although the experience obtained from their traditional use over the years should not be ignored.
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The document covered such topics as developing protocols for clinical trials using herbal medicines, evaluating herbal medicine research, guidelines for quality specifications of plant materials and preparations, and guidelines for pharmacodynamic and general pharmacological studies of herbal medicines and for toxicity investigations of herbal medicines. These guidelines defined the basic criteria for the evaluation of quality, safety and efficacy of herbal medicines with the goal of assisting national regulatory authorities, scientific organizations and manufacturers in assessing documentation, submissions and dossiers in respect of such products.
It was recommended that such assessments take into account long-term use in the country over at least several decades , any description in the medical and pharmaceutical literature or similar sources or documentation of knowledge on the application of a herbal medicine, and marketing authorizations for similar products. Although prolonged and apparently uneventful use of a substance usually offers testimony of its safety, investigation of the potential toxicity of naturally occurring substances may reveal previously unsuspected problems.
It was also recommended that regulatory authorities have the authority to respond promptly to new information on toxicity by withdrawing or limiting the licences of registered products containing suspect substances, or by reclassifying the substances to limit their use to medical prescription. The guidelines stressed the need for assessment of efficacy including the determination of pharmacological and clinical effects of the active ingredients, and labelling which includes a quantitative list of active ingredient s , dosage, and contra-indications.
The importance of herbal medicinal products varies from one country to another. These products are not a homogeneous group. In general, they are either fully licensed medicinal products with efficacy proven by clinical studies or by references to published scientific literature in accordance with Article 4. Many Member States have these two categories, but there are major discrepancies between the Member States in the classification of individual herbal drug preparations and products into one of these categories as well as in the requirements for obtaining a marketing authorization.
In almost all Member States, herbal medicinal products are considered as medicinal products, and are, in principle, subject to the general regulations for medicines as laid down in the various national medicine laws. This includes plants, parts of plants and their preparations, mostly presented with therapeutic or prophylactic claims. Different categories of medicinal products containing plant preparations exist or are in the process of being created. Generally, herbal products are classified as medicinal products if they claim therapeutic or prophylactic indication, and are not considered as medicinal products when they do not make these claims.
Products not classified as medicinal in most cases belong to the food or cosmetic areas, although they sometimes contain plants which have pharmacological properties. For example, senna pods from Cassia plants, used as laxatives see General Remarks and monograph on Rubia tinctorum, Morinda officinalis and anthraquinones in this volume can be marketed as food in Belgium.
In Ireland, Spain and the United Kingdom, there exist preparations defined as medicinal products, which are under specific conditions exempt from licensing requirements. Herbal ingredients used in combination are widely used in Europe, and their assessment is often performed according to specific guidelines. Combinations of herbal and homeopathic ingredients exist in a few countries. Combinations of herbal ingredients and vitamins are available in many countries.
A marketing authorization for a herbal medicinal product is, in principle, granted based on an extensive dossier in terms of proof of quality, safety and efficacy in all Member States, with the exception of Denmark and Finland, where it is possible to use only references to published data for herbal medicinal products. Luxembourg, in practice, only grants marketing authorization based on the assessment of other countries. In principle, according to Article 4. Austria permits this type of application for safety documentation only.
Many regulatory authorities regard them as helpful documentation for clarifying efficacy and safety. This Working Group is made up of representatives from the Member States primarily health authorities and representatives from the European Parliament, the EC and the European Pharmacopoeia. The Working Group has reviewed the criteria for the demonstration of quality, pre-clinical safety and clinical efficacy in marketing authorization applications for herbal medicinal products as set out in the Council Directives.
The Working Group has proposed requirements for non-clinical testing of herbal drug preparations based on a draft EC Guideline for old substances with long market histories EMEA, Various traditional herbal medicinal products exist in many Member States in addition to fully licensed herbal medicinal products. For these products, national authorities usually verify the safety and ensure a sufficient level of quality.
For proof of efficacy, the level of requirements is sometimes adjusted to take into account the long-term experience and is therefore simplified. For example, a specific simplified procedure exists in Austria, Belgium, France and Germany. Most other countries in the EU do not use this strategy. For herbal medicinal products that have been proposed for non-traditional indications or are modified from their traditional form e.
In several countries, such products are not used. Some herbal medicinal products are made according to accepted formulae and are prepared by pharmacists. According to Article 2. A specific situation exists in the United Kingdom, where a practitioner, according to Section 12 of the Medicines Act Griffin, , may supply products to a customer without a licence. The quality of imported medicinal plants and their preparations is assessed differently in different Member States.
In some cases, no specific regulations exist concerning the control of raw materials or crude drugs, particularly for products that enter the market as foodstuffs or other products that are not controlled in the same way as medicinal products. Finished products are often treated as new chemical entities with full proof of quality, safety and efficacy being required. Starting materials for herbal medicinal products are in principle controlled in accordance with the European Pharmacopoeia in all Member States.
Good manufacturing practice inspections are carried out in nearly all Member States. The European Pharmacopoeia was created in ; its efforts have resulted in the creation of 83 monographs on herbal drugs which are used either in their natural state after desiccation or concentration or for the isolation of natural active ingredients Council of Europe, The adverse reaction reporting systems of the Member States also monitor herbal medicinal products if they are authorized medicinal products. This system has demonstrated its effectiveness in the case of several withdrawals of marketing authorizations for herbal medicinal products due to safety concern in connection with certain plants.
Consumer reports could provide a picture of the spectrum of adverse reactions to herbal medicinal products and alert authorities to potential problems; the degree of acceptance of such reports varies between Member States. This directive covers herbal products if they are authorized as medicinal products. It is permitted in other outlets in the case of certain herbal medicinal products in Austria, Denmark, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Distance selling and teleshopping are not permitted for herbal medicinal products in most countries. Herbal medicinal products are regarded as medicinal products in most of the Member States and have, in theory, the option of obtaining marketing authorization in the same way as all other medicinal products. However, the legal systems of the Member States differ in the classification of herbal products, in the availability of an application process for a marketing authorization based on a full application, bibliographical application or simplified proof of efficacy, and in the permitted outlets for retail distribution.
Member States have different traditions regarding the therapeutic use of medicinal plant preparations, which may make it more difficult for manufacturers of herbal medicinal products to apply for marketing authorization using the decentralized procedure. The shortened procedure requires limited or no pharmacological, toxicological and clinical tests and is detailed in the Agency Instructions No.
The list of drugs with accepted traditional uses was first published in by the Ministry of Health and has subsequently been revised several times Table 5. Traditional use of approximately herbal drugs or preparations derived from these drugs has been recognized for minor indications. Agency Instructions No. If the drug is not specifically included in the list, there is no option to use an abridged procedure AESGP, As of , local medicinal plants were on the A list of the French Pharmacopoeia Castot et al. Examples of plants and indications from the French Agency Instructions No.
Castot et al. These plants were listed in by the government in reason of lack of reported toxicity in traditional use or following complete bibliographic investigation. Add 6 inches 15 cm to your measurement around the chest. Using your measuring tape or ruler, mark your measurements on the fabric and cut a rectangle X your measurement inches wide by 42 inches cm long.
This will make your apron about knee length when it is complete. Fold over 2 inches 5 cm and sew. This gives the top part a more distinctive hem. Measure out 2 strips of fabric 6 inches 15 cm by 28 inches 71 cm. Using your finger or pencil, start to turn the strap inside out by pushing into the sewn edge and working it through the open edge.
Healing Herbs: Embracing Nature's Medicine | Wake Up World
Flatten the straps with your fingers and press with the iron. Set these aside. Cut an 8 x inch 20 x cm rectangle. Place the pocket 3 inches 7. Pin down and sew along the two sides and the bottom edge. Keep the top open as this will form your pocket. If you want to reinforce your pocket as well as add some smaller compartments for pens and a notebook, measure out the sizes you want and sew down the pocket vertically. When you go over the open edge of the pocket, reverse and sew back and forth a few times to really secure it so that when you are taking things in and out of your pocket, the thread doesn't become loose over time.
Fold over another 1 inch 2. To place the pocket, measure 3 inches 7. Fold the apron in half and measure 3 inches 7. Place your pocket and secure with pins.
The New American Herbal: A Review
Sew around the edges, leaving the top open to form the pocket. Measure out a 19 x inch 48 x cm rectangle. Fold it in half horizontally. Cut the 2 bottom corners into a slightly rounded shape, cutting off only about 2 inches 5 cm of the corner, and then unfold. On the top edge one of the inch [cm] sides we will be creating a casing for the drawstring to pull through.
You will want to leave enough of a space for your cord to move through easily. Place your stitch length on your sewing machine on the highest setting, which is a basting stitch. This is a loose stitch to keep fabric in place and is not a permanent stitch. This will allow you to gather the edge and scrunch it together. When you are done, hold the ends of the thread in one hand, and with the other, pull on the fabric, beginning to gather it together. Do this on each end and scrunch towards the middle. Make sure the gathering is even and does not bunch up in one area.
With the gathering, it should now measure approximately 20 inches 51 cm. See All Customer Reviews. Shop Books. Read an excerpt of this book! Add to Wishlist. USD Sign in to Purchase Instantly. About the Author Ally Sands is the founder of Aquarian Soul, an organic brand of crystal-infused skincare and ritual bathing products. Your cones don't have to be perfect and can be as long or as short as you want. Excerpted by permission of Page Street Publishing Co.. All rights reserved.
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